Sustainable Development Goals and Their Background

Sustainable Development Goals And Their Background
Sustainable Development Goals, abbreviated as SDGs, or in the World known as the Sustainable Development Goals, are 17 goals with 169 organized achievements set by the United Nations in the world development agenda for the benefit of humans and planet Earth. The goal was announced by the intergovernmental countries in the UN resolution which was issued October 21, 2015 with the aim of joint development ambitions until 2030. The goal is a continuation / replacement of the Millennium Development Goals signed by leaders from 189 countries as the Millennium Declaration at the headquarters The United Nations in 2000 and has not been reinstated since 2015.

Background on Sustainable Development Goals
The new sustainable development plan has been made in response to the demands of world leadership in overcoming poverty, inequality and climate change with concrete forms of action. The concept of the Sustainable Development Goals was born at the UN Sustainable Development Conference, Rio + 20, 2012 with the setting of targets that can be applied universally and can be measured in balancing 3 dimensions of sustainable development, namely social, environmental and economic.
The agenda in 2030 is 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SGD) or Global Goals, which will guide funding and policies for the next 15 years (2030).
In order to turn these demands into action, world leaders met at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, on September 25, 2015 to start the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda.
This objective was devised since 19 July 2014 and submitted to the UN General Assembly by the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals. In the proposal there are 17 objectives with achievements that cover the issue of sustainable development. These include alleviating poverty and hunger, education, improving health, tackling climate change, sustainable city development, and protecting the sea and forests.

Sustainable Development Goals
In August 2015, 193 countries agreed on the following 17 goals:
Without Poverty
Elimination of all types of poverty in all places.

Without starvation
End hunger to achieve food security and to improve nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture.

Prosperous and healthy life
Supporting well-being and promoting healthy living for all ages.

Quality education
Encourage lifelong learning opportunities and ensure quality education that is appropriate and inclusive for everyone.

Gender equality
Empower all women and achieve gender equality.

Clean water and proper sanitation
Guaranteeing access to water and sanitation for all.

Clean and affordable energy
Ensuring access to reliable, affordable, modern and sustainable energy for all.

Decent work and economic growth
Promote sustainable economic growth and employment and decent work for all.

Industry, innovation and infrastructure
Promote sustainable industrialization, build strong infrastructure and encourage innovation.

Reduced gap
Reducing the gap between countries and within.

Cities and communities are sustainable
Making cities safe, inclusive, strong and sustainable.

Responsible consumption and production
Ensuring sustainable production and consumption patterns

Handling climate change
Take important steps to fight climate change and its effects.

Marine ecosystems
Sustainable use and protection of oceans, seas and marine resources

Terrestrial ecosystems
Maintaining forests sustainably, stopping and repairing land damage, fighting land conversion to desert, stopping biodiversity extinction.

Peace, justice and resilient institutions
Encouraging a just, peaceful and inclusive society

Partnership to achieve goals
Reviving global cooperation for sustainable development.

Examples of Economic Development

Examples of Economic Development
Economic Development Factors
Some things affect development and economic growth, but basically they can be grouped into two, such as economic and non-economic factors.
Things that can affect development and economic growth include HR, natural resources, and entrepreneurship and expertise.
Natural resources (HR), namely natural resources such as land, soil fertility, forest products, climate / weather conditions, sea products, and mining, are very influential in the growth of a country's industry, especially in terms of providing raw materials for production.
Entrepreneurship and expertise are needed as the processing of raw materials from nature into something that has high value (also known as the production process).
Human resources (SDA) also determine the success of national development through the number and quality of products. A very large population is a very potential market for marketing products, while the quality of the population determines how much productivity there is.
Non-economic factors include social conditions that exist in society, institutions, political situations, and systems that develop and apply in society.

Differences in Economic Growth and Economic Development
Economic growth
The process of rising per capita products in the long run.
Do not pay attention to income distribution.
Pay no attention to population growth
Not necessarily able to improve people's lives.
Economic growth is not necessarily accompanied by economic development
Each input can produce more output

Economic Development
A process of constant change towards improvement, including efforts to improve per capita products.
Paying attention to equitable distribution of income, including equitable development and its results.
Record population growth.
Improve the standard of living of the community.
Economic development is always accompanied by economic growth.
Every input besides producing more output has also occurred changes in institutional and technical knowledge.
Positive and Negative Impacts of Economic Development
Positive Impacts of Economic Development
Through economic development, the implementation of economic activities will run more smoothly and be able to accelerate the process of economic growth.
Their economic development is made possible by the creation of jobs needed by the community, thereby reducing unemployment.
Job creation due to their direct economic development can increase the level of national income.

The Negative Impacts of Economic Development
Their economic development is not well planned causing environmental damage.
Industrialization results in the reduction of agricultural land.

Economic Development: Positive and Negative Impacts

Economic Development: Positive and Negative Impacts
Definition of Economic Development
Economic development is a process of an increase in total income and income per capita by taking into account the increase in a population and the fundamental changes in the economic structure in a country and the increase in income for the people in a country.
An economic development can not be separated from economic growth, it can encourage economic growth, and vice versa, economic growth can facilitate a process of economic development.
The purpose of economic growth is a process of increasing the capacity of an economy that has been realized in the form of an increase in national income. In a country it can be said to experience economic growth if there is an increase in the real SNP in a country. With economic growth is an indication of the success of a country's economic development.
The difference between the two is the economic growth of the success of quantitative changes, meaning that there is an increase in the standard of income and the level of output output that has been produced, while with economic development is more qualitative, not only an increase in production, but a change in the production structure and input allocation to various economic sector, for example knowledge, institutions, engineering, and social.

Development as a process
A development can be interpreted as a process, with the meaning that development is tahao that must be undertaken for all people or nations. For example, humans from birth, do not immediately become adults, but to become an adult must go through stages of growth. Likewise, every nation must undergo the stages of development to be a prosperous, just, and prosperous condition.

Development as an effort to increase per capita income
As an effort, development is an active action that must be carried out or carried out by a nation or state in increasing per capita income. With that, it takes the role of all people, governments and all elements in a country to always actively participate in development. This was done because the increase in per capita income reflected improvements in a people's welfare.

The increase in income per capita must take place in the long term
The economy can be said to develop if per capita income in the long run tends to increase. that right does not mean that per capita income must increase continuously. For example, in a country where natural disasters strike, the country's economy will suffer a setback. However, this situation was only temporary, the most important thing for the country was that its economic activities experienced an average increase from year to year.

European Economic Community: Definition & (History - Purpose)

European Economic Community: Definition & (History - Purpose)
World War II, Europe experienced poverty and division, efforts to unite Europe have been carried out, but its success depends on two large countries, namely France and West Germany.

"European Economic Community" Definition & (History - Purpose)
The European Economic Community "EEC" is a regional organization that aims to unite the economies of its member countries. This organization was formed through the Rome agreement in 1957.
After the "EU" European Union was formed in 1993, the MEE was united and renamed the European Community "EC", in 2009, all ME institutions were merged into the European Union.

MEE History
These institutions on July 1, 1967 merged into one organization namely the European Community "ME" and then in 1993 became the European Union "European Union".
Initially the activities of the European Union were limited to trade, but in line with the increase in membership, EU activities developed not only in trade but in broader fields such as taxation, industry, agriculture and politics. This effort is continued by forming a joint market which is an agreement to remove obstacles to the mobility of factors of production among fellow EU members.

The Purpose of Establishing EEC Organizations
In this regard, the MEE emphasized its objectives, including:
European integration by establishing economic cooperation, improving living standards and expanding employment.
Promote trade and ensure free competition and balance of trade between member countries.
Remove all obstacles that hamper the speed of international trade.
Expanding relations with countries other than EEC members.
To realize its goal, EEC formed a common European market "Comman Market", uniform tariffs and freedom of movement in terms of labor, goods, and capital.

EEC Member Countries
For this case, the EU members consist of 27 countries: Ireland, England, France, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Australia, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Poland, Czech, Hungary, Slovenia, Cyprus, Malta, Slovakia, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Portugal.
Thus the discussion about the "European Economic Community" Definition & (History - Purpose) hopefully with this review can add insight and knowledge of you all, thank you very much for your visit.

The Types of catalysts and Touch Surface Area

The Types of catalysts and Touch Surface Area
In solids that react are atoms or molecules on the surface, while atoms or molecules on the inside are closed from the outside, so they cannot react. The number of 'faces' on the outside is called the surface area. The more surface area of the reagent, the greater the chance to react so that the reaction rate will also be faster. (Endang Widjajanti).

Surface Area Touch
The touch surface area affects the reaction rate. The greater the touch surface area, the faster the reaction.
The effect of the touch surface area is related to whether or not the reactant particles meet. If the surface area of the touch increases, the particles more easily meet so that the number of effective collisions will increase, so that the reaction rate also increases.

A catalyst is a substance added to a reaction with the intention of increasing the reaction rate. catalysts are sometimes involved in reactions but do not undergo permanent chemical changes. therefore their presence is usually marked by a notation above the reaction arrow. in other words at the end of the reaction, the catalyst will be found again in the same form and amount as before the reaction. the success or failure of a commercial process to produce a compound often depends on the use of a suitable catalyst. an increase in temperature is one way to increase the fraction of molecules that have energy exceeding the activation energy. Another way that does not require an increase in temperature is to get a reaction path with lower activation energy. (petrucci, 1987)

The role of the catalyst in influencing the reaction rate is related to the reactivation energy, Ea. The catalyst used to accelerate the reaction provides an alternative reaction mechanism with a lower value of Ea compared to the catalyst without reaction Ea. With a lower Ea, more particles have enough kinetic energy to overcome this low Ea obstacle. this causes the number of effective collisions will increase, so the reaction rate will also increase.

The types of catalysts are:
Homogeneous catalyst
Is a catalyst whose form is the same as the form of its reactants.
In chemical reactions, homogeneous catalysts function as intermediaries (facilitators).
Example :
NO2 gas catalyst in the manufacture of SO3 gas.
Cl2 gas catalyst on decomposition N2O
Heterogeneous catalyst
Is a catalyst whose form is different from the shape of the reactants.
The reaction of substances involving this type of catalyst takes place on the surface of the catalyst.
 Example :
Ni metal catalyst in the hydrogenation of ethene (C2H4).
Metal catalyst Rodium or Iridium in the process of making ethanoic acid.
Ni metal catalyst in the process of making butter.
Metal catalyst V2O5 in the reaction of making sulfuric acid (Contact process).
Fe metal catalysts in ammonia-making reactions (Haber-Bosch process)
Biocatalyst (enzyme).
Is a catalyst that can accelerate chemical reactions in the body of living things.
The mechanism of action is the "lock and lock" method, popularized by Emil Fischer.
Example :
Amylase enzymes = help hydrolyze starch to maltose.
Catalase = breaks down H2O2 into O2 and H2O
Lipase enzyme = breaks down lipids into glycerol and fatty acids.

Is a reaction substance that functions as a catalyst. That is, the reaction products formed will accelerate chemical reactions.

Example :
The reaction between potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and oxalic acid (H2C2O4) is one of the results of the reaction in the form of manganese sulfate (MnSO4).
The longer, the reaction rate will be faster because the formed MnSO4 serves as a catalyst.

Collision Theory
A substance can react with other substances if the particles collide with each other. The collision that occurs will produce energy to start the reaction. The occurrence of collisions is caused by particles of matter always moving in an irregular direction. Collisions between reacting particles do not always produce reactions. Only collisions that produce enough energy and the right direction of the collision can produce a reaction. Collisions like this are called effective collisions.

The Overall Rate of a Chemical Reaction Generally

The Overall Rate of a Chemical Reaction Generally
The overall rate of a chemical reaction generally increases if the concentration of a reactant is or is increased. The relationship between rate and concentration can be obtained from experimental data. The reaction rate can be directly proportional to [A] x and [B] y. The Law of Reaction Rate is an equation that relates the reaction rate to the molar concentration or partial pressure of a reactant with the appropriate rank. The rate = a constant multiplied by a function of concentration or partial pressure of reaction. For the example of the reaction above, it can be written in the form of a reaction rate law or a reaction rate equation.
The reaction rate is the reduction in the amount of the concentration of the reactants for each unit of time or the increase in the amount of the concentration of the reaction product for each unit of time.

There are 4 factors that affect the rate of reaction, namely:
Concentration affects the rate of the reaction, because the number of particles allows more collisions, and that opens up the opportunity for more effective collisions to produce change. (Purwanti Widhy Hastuti).

The concentration of reagents affects the rate of reaction. The higher the concentration of reagents, the faster the reaction rate
The effect of concentration is also related to the number of particles involved in the collision. If the concentration of reagents increases, the number of particles will increase. Thus, these particles actually get closer and the number of effective collisions will also increase, thereby increasing the rate of reaction.

the temperature of the rate of a chemical reaction increases with increasing temperature. with rising temperatures, not only do molecules collide more frequently, but they also collide with greater impacts, because they move faster. At elevated temperatures, the percentage of collisions that result in chemical reactions will be greater, because more molecules which has greater speed and therefore has enough energy to act. (Keenan, 1984).
The effect of temperature on the reaction rate is related to the value of the kinetic energy of the particles. If the temperature is raised, the kinetic energy of the particles will increase. Thus, more particles will have a minimum kinetic energy ≥ Ea. This causes the number of effective collisions to increase, so the reaction rate increases. This is shown in the following image:

Factors Affecting the Reaction Rate

Factors Affecting the Reaction Rate
Understanding Reaction Rate
The reaction rate can be defined as a change in the concentration of reagents or the product of time unity. This means that there is a reduction in the concentration of reagents or increase the concentration of the product per unit of time (Keenan, 1990). Reaction rate or reaction rate is the rate or rate of reduction of reactants or the formation of reaction products that can be expressed in units (concentrations per time) mol / L / s (for liquid and solid substances), or atm / s (for gaseous substances). Reaction speed is the number of moles / liters of a substance that can be turned into another substance in each unit of time. The equation for the reaction rate is;
V = K [A] [B] 2

Where V is the reaction rate, K is the reaction rate constant and [A] [B] is the concentration of the reacting substance. The rank value expresses the coefficient of the substance or order of the reaction. Reaction order means describing the level of reaction or the relationship between concentration and speed (Petrucci, 1985).
The reaction rate equation has two main applications, namely practical application and theoretical application. It is said for practical application is where the equation of reaction rate and reaction rate constants are known, it can be predicted the reaction rate of a mixture composition, while the theoretical application is where the equation rate is used to determine the reaction mechanism (Atkins, 1990).
The rate of reaction is measured, often proportional to the reactant concentration of a power. For example, the rate is proportional to the concentrations of the two reactants A and B, so that;
V = K [A] [B] 2

The coefficient K is called a rate constant that does not depend on concentration but depends on temperature. This kind of equation that is formed experimentally is called the law of reaction rate. Formally, the law of rate is an equation that states the rate of reaction V as a function of the concentration of all existing species including products (Atkins, 1990).
The rate of reaction is also called the coefficient of rate or rate of type reaction, with k (constant). The rate constant is the ratio constant between the reaction rate and the result times the concentration of the species that affects the reaction rate. The rate constant is also a change in the concentration of reactants or reaction products per unit time in a reaction if the concentration of all reactants is equal to one.